Laboklin have been working in cooperation with the Kennel Club for over seven years.
Many of Laboklin DNA tests are part of the Kennel CLub Official DNA testing schemes.
Renal Cystadenocarcinoma and Nodular Dermatofibrosis (RCND)
CND is a rare, naturally occurring inherited cancer syndrome observed in dogs characterised by a combination of abnormal growths in the skin and in the kidneys in both males and females, and also in the uterus in female dogs.
Skin abnormalities are usually noticed first, as small, firm 'lumps and bumps' under the skin, more commonly on the limbs and the head. The kidney tumours often form nodular masses and cysts that can cause the kidneys to become enlarged, abnormally shaped and scarred. Affected dogs may seem depressed and lose their appetite, resulting in weight loss. However, as the kidneys disease progresses, there is a substantial increase in the animal's water intake and urination. Due to kidney disease, blood can be seen in the urine. The dog can become anaemic due to loss of blood and may become lethargic and lack appetite. The disease typically presents over the age of 5, and tumours may not develop until the dog is 9 to 11 old. Affected dogs die around the age of 9 (average) due kidney failure or metastatic disease. Puppies with two copies of the mutation are most likely die very early in gestation
MH (Malignant Hyperthermia)
Maligant hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by hypercarbia, rhabdomyolysis, generalized skeletal muscle contracture, cardiac dysrhythmia, and renal failure that develops on exposure to succinylcholine or volatile anesthetic agents. Specific interventions, including use of the calcium release channel antagonist dantrolene, are efficacious in reversing signs of the canine syndrome.
MDR1 Gene Defect / Ivermectin Sensitivity
MDR1 is a genetic disorder found in many dog breeds. Affected dogs, when treated with certain common drugs such as Ivermectin and loperamide (Imodium), are unable to pump out these drugs from the brain resulting in poisoning and neurologic symptoms ranging from tremors, anorexia and excess salivation to blindness, coma and even death. Some of these drugs such as Ivermectins, which vets prescribe extensively for the treatment of parasite infections, are able to cause toxicity at 1/200th of the dose required to cause toxicity in healthy dogs.
Scientists discovered that these dogs lack a protein (P-Glycoprotein), which is responsible for pumping out many drugs and toxins from the brain, and that affected dogs show signs of toxicity because they are unable to stop drugs from permeating their brains. Researchers have identified that this condition is due to a mutation in the multi-drug resistance gene
MPS ( Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII)
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII belongs to a group of rare genetic disorders of glycosaminglycan catabolism resulting in lysosomal storage. Clinical signs are corneal clouding and severe skeletal deformities. Affected dogs are unable to ambulate at several weeks to months of age.
Hyperuricosuria / Urate Stones (HUU, SLC)
Hyperuricosuria is characterized by elevated levels of uric acid in the urine. This disease predisposes dogs to form stones in their bladders or sometimes kidneys.
Haemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency)
Haemophilia A is one of the most important inherited disorders of haemostasis in Havanese Dogs. The underlying pathomechanism of Haemophilia A is a lack or decreased activity of factor VIII that plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade. Affected dogs present with hemorrhage that can vary from mild to severe depending on the degree of the disease. The clinical signs include haematomas of large sizes, bleeding of the nose, skin, muscles and joints. If the disease is severe and no precautions are taken, affected dogs can bleed to death after surgery or injury. In cooperation with Prof. Dr. Mischke (Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover) LABOKLIN was able to identify a SINE insert in exon 14 of the factor VIII gene that is responsible for the lack of active factor VIII protein in Havanese Dogs.
Haemophilia A is a sex-linked disorder (x-chromosomal recessive). Male dogs express the disease when they have one mutated x-chromosome. The mutated x-chromosome comes from the bitch. In most cases female dogs are carrier of one mutated x-chromosome without being diseased (conductor). According to Mendel's Law of Inheritance, 50% of the male puppies of a carrier bitch will have the mutated x-chromosome and express the disease and 50% of the female puppies will be healthy carriers (conductors). Female dogs will be diseased when they have two mutated x-chromosomes (one from the mother, one from the father). In that case both, father and mother must have the mutated x-chromosome (e.g. diseased male dog bred to conductor bitch)
Dwarfism (Pituitary Dwarfism / Hypopituitarism)
Inherited Dwarfism is a condition in which the production of the Growth Hormone (GH) is inadequate. Growth hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and has many effects on the body including control of growth rate, maintenance of hair coat, and bone and teeth development. Affected dogs appear normal at birth, but show evidence of failure to grow by two to three months of age. Symptoms include small stature compared to littermates, retention of puppy coat, hair loss, darkening of the skin, delayed eruption or absence of permanent teeth, a shrill bark, Small testicles and sometimes infertility in the male, Absence of heat and sometimes infertility in the female.
Affected dogs appear normal at birth, but show evidence of failure to grow by two to three months of age. Symptoms include small stature compared to littermates, retention of puppy coat, hair loss, darkening of the skin, delayed eruption or absence of permanent teeth, a shrill bark, Small testicles and sometimes infertility in the male, Absence of heat and sometimes infertility in the female.
Degenerative Myelopathy / degenerative radiculomyelopathy) DM (Exon 2)
Canine degenerative myelopathy (also known as chronic degenerative radiculomyelopathy) is a progressive disease of the spinal cord in older dogs. The disease has an insidious onset typically between 7 and 14 years of age. It begins with a loss of coordination (ataxia) in the hind limbs. As of July 15, 2008 the mutated gene responsible for DM has been found present in 43 breeds including German Shepherds, Boxers, Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, and both breeds of Welsh Corgis. The disease is chronic and progressive, and resulting in paralysis.
Degenerative myelopathy initially affects the back
Degenerative myelopathy initially affects the back legs and causes muscle weakness and loss, and lack of coordination. These cause a staggering effect that may appear to be arthritis. The dog may drag one or both rear paws when it walks. This dragging can cause the nails of one foot to be worn down. The condition may lead to extensive paralysis of the back legs. As the disease progresses, the animal may display symptoms such as incontinence and has considerable difficulties with both balance and walking. If allowed to progress, the animal will show front limb involvement and extensive muscle atrophy. Eventually cranial nerve or respiratory muscle involvement necessitates euthanasia. Progression of the disease is generally slow but highly variable. The animal could be crippled within a few months, or may survive up to three years ~
Hemorragic Diathesis / Bleeding Diathesis (Canine Scott Syndrom)
Hereditary bleeding disorder
Achromatopsia (day blindness)
Day Blindness in the Labrador Retriever and Labrador crosses is an autosomal recessive inherited disease. The condition, also known as Achromatopsia Type 1 (ACHM-Type 1) which is present at birth. Clinical symptoms become apparent at approximately 8-10 weeks of age. The disease causes the dogs to be unable to see in bright/daylight conditions. In lower light conditions, e.g. at night, Labradors with this disease have visual function comparable to normal dogs.
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